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Too much CURIOSITY killed the cat, but we are happy

to tell you about the benefits of humour & laughter. 

PUBLICATIONS and SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH on Benefits of Humour and Laughter in Medicine and Healthcare


Smiles are Everywhere: Integrating Clown-Play into Healthcare Practice Prof. Warren, Bernie and Dr. Peter Spitzer. London & N.Y.: Routledge, 2014


Audacity and Insane Courage – Dream Doctors' Secret Remedies Prof. Citron, Atay in Performance Studies in Motion: International Perspectives and Practices in the Twenty-First Century. Atay Citron, David Zerbib, Sharon Aronson-Lehavi, eds., London: Bloomsbury Methuen Drama


The Humor Code: A Global Search for What Makes Things Funny  Dr. McGraw, Peter and Joel Lerner. N.Y.: Simon & Schuster



How To Raise A Smile: The Sydney Multi-Site Intervention of LaughterBosses and Elder Clowns Australian Journal of Dementia Care Vol. 1, No. 1 June/July, pp. 22-25



Drama Therapy Role Theory as a Context for Understanding Medical Clowning Grinberg, Zohar, Suzana Pendzik et al. The Arts in Psychotherapy 39, 42-51.


Still the Best Medicine, Even in a War Zone: My Work as a Medical Clown Raviv, Amnon. TDR: The Drama Review. 56:2 (T214) 169-177.



The Effect of Medical Clowning on Pregnancy Rates After in vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer Friedler S, Glasser S, Azani L, & al Fertil Steril. 95(6) 2127-30.


The Rise of Performance Studies: Rethinking Richard Schechner’s Broad Spectrum (James Harding & Cindy Rosenthal, eds.) London & New York: Palgrave Macmillan



Laughing to longevity—the work of elder clowns Bernie Warren and Peter Spitzer, The Lancet: 378, 9791



Non-pharmacological interventions for assisting the induction of anesthesia in children Yip P, Middleton P, Cyna AM, Carlyle AV. Cochrane Database Jul8;(3):CD006447.


Serious Play: Modern Clown Performance Peacock, Louise, Bristol, UK and Chicago USA: Intellect.


A positive stress-reducing response from laughter listeners  Dr. Bachorowski JA,  Dr. Owren MJ.Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA.

Healing Laughter: The Role And Benefits Of Clown-Doctors Working In Hospitals And Healthcare In Prof. Warren, B., (Ed) Using The Creative Arts In Healthcare And Therapy, Routledge, London & New York pp 213


Hospital Clowns – Modern-Day Court Jesters at Work Dr. Spitzer, Peter. Lancet 2006; 368: S34-S35.


Hospital Clowns Working in Pairs – In Synchronized Communication With Ailing Children Linge, Lotta. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being. 2008: 3, 27-38.



The Definition of the medical clown's role with adult patients Scheyer R, Nuttman-Shwartz O, Ziyoni H, Harefua (in Hebrew), 147 (1): 25-9, 



Laughter can trigger energy inside a person's DNA potentially helping cure disease

It's been said laughter is the best medicine, but no one has so far proved it. Now a Japanese scientist is unlocking the secrets of the funny bone, which he believes can cheer up people's genes.


Geneticist Kazuo Murakami has teamed up on the study with an unlikely research partner: stand-up comedians, who he hopes -- no joke -- can turn their one-liners into efficient, low-cost medical treatment.  Genes are usually regarded as immutable, but in reality more than 90 per cent of them are dormant or less active in producing protein, so some types of stimulation can wake them up.


Murakami's tentative theory is that laughter is one such stimulant, which can trigger energy inside a person's DNA potentially helping cure disease. "If we prove people can switch genes on and off by an emotion like laughter, it may be the finding of the century which should be worth the Nobel Prize or even go beyond that," said Murakami, 70, director of Japan's Foundation for Advancement of International Science.


Three years ago, Murakami and Yoshimoto Kogyo Co Ltd, a leading entertainment company, jointly carried out their first experiment to let diabetics laugh at a comedy show performed by the firm's top stand-up comedians after listening to a monotonous college lecture. The two-day experiment showed that their blood glucose levels -- a key gauge for development of diabetes - became lower after they laughed compared with after listening to the yawning lecture.


His latest experiment with the entertainment firm spotted at least 23 genes which can be activated. Eighteen of them are designed to work for immune response, signal transduction and cell cycle, while functions of the remaining five others are still unknown. The findings, which Murakami says are the first of their kind, are scheduled to be published in January 2006 by Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, a US academic journal.


"A laughing therapy has no side-effect, meaning it is an epoch-making treatment for clinical medicine," he said. "One day it won't be a joke to see patients receive a prescription for a comedy video at a pharmacy for medical treatment.


Having a good laugh has long been thought of as therapeutic. Laughter has been taught by yoga masters in India, home to a growing number of "laughing clubs" whose members get together just to enjoy a chuckle. Expectations from Murakami's research are particularly high in Japan, where medicare costs are increasing year after year as the country rapidly ages.


Even with the research still in its early stages, a Japanese medical publisher, under the editorial guidance of Murakami's research team, began selling DVDs last year instructing patients with diabetes on how to laugh.


Laughter in hospitals reduces the health insurance costs

The ministry of economy, trade and industry believes that laughter therapy could be put to good use in a project as demand grows for preventive medical care. "If the relation between laughter and health is proved scientifically, it may have a big impact on ways to improve health," said Hikaru Horiguchi, an official of the ministry. "We also hope that a new type of industry will be created by linking the two different fields -- laughter and medical treatment," Horiguchi said.


With the ministry's financial support, Osaka Sangyo University in western Japan formed a joint venture with researchers, firms and doctors in 2004 to provide elderly people with a complete medical care program combining physical training and laughter therapy. "It was the nation's first attempt to launch a medicare business with laughter in collaboration with the government, industry and academe," said Mitsutoshi Nishikawa, a university official in charge of the "Daito Dynamic Project" based in Daito city in Osaka.


Nishikawa said Osaka was an ideal location to launch the project as the city is famous for its humour culture, with residents here said to be less hesitant to laugh in public than more taciturn Tokyo. "We believe there is a big business chance here," Nishikawa said. "With the project, we can expect a reduction in medicare and nursing costs," he said. "Moreover, it is important for elderly people to live long with good health." In the program, participants receive a medical check-up and gymnastic exercises while enjoying a comedy show performed by professional comedians.


"I used to laugh a lot when I was young, but I realized that I had not laughed much since getting older," said Kiyomi Yamanaka, a 61-year-old housewife participating in the program. "But after attending the event, my blood flow has become smooth and I can now get down on my knees, which I couldn't do before."  According to project officials, the 92 participants polled said their combined annual medicare costs fell 23 per cent to 2.26 million yen ($A26,256) after they joined the program. Nishikawa said: "In the future, we want to make medical treatment something not gloomy but fun. That's our goal." 


Clown Doctors as Treatment for Preoperative Anxiety in Children: A Randomized, Prospective Study Vagnoli l. & al, "Pediatrics, 116, 4, 1013, 2005.



The Clown Doctor Chronicles Simonds, Caroline and Bernie Warren.  Amsterdam & N.Y.: Rodopi


Bring me sunshine: the effects of clown-doctors on the mood and attitudes of health care staff Prof. Warren, Bernie In Twohig, P. & Kalitzkus, V., (Eds.)


Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Health Illness and Disease Trumble, Agnus, Rodopi: Amsterdam, New York


A Brief History of the Smile, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest Australia



Laughter therapy against depression, anxiety, hypertension and diabetes Dr J. Sales, Jornal Hoje, Brazil



Positive emotions and laughter help to control spikes in blood sugar levels Hayashi K, Hayashi T, Iwanaga S, Kawai K, Ishii H, Shoji S, Murakami K., Diabetes research team, Nagoya


Humor Tickles Drug Center that Gives Hedonistic High Pearson H., Nature 2003, vol. 426.



Effect of humour on allergen-induced wheat reactions. Laughter help relieve hay-fever symptoms Kimata, H., Journal of the American Medical Association 2001 Feb 14; 285(6):738.


Is Humour Medicine? Dr. Spitzer, Peter, The Australian Family Physician journal Vol30, No.1, Jan The lead


Fools Are Everywhere: The Court Jester Around the World. Otto, Beatrice K. Chicago & London: The university of Chicago Press, 2001


Tragedy, Laughter, and Survival Wooten, P. & Ed Dunkelblau. Nursing Spectrum (online)


Using Humor in Crisis Situations Sultanoff, Steve.  AATH (online). 


How Can You Laugh at a Time Like This? Klein, Allen.   AATH. Oct. 2001 (online).


Funny Faces, Bubbles, Gags: The Newest Treatment for the Smallest Patients Dr. Hyde, Michael. The Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 22-25.


Laughing reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease Dr. Michael Miller, the University of Maryland Medical Center in Baltimore (online)


Emotional states and physical health Salovey, P., Rothman, A., Detweiler, J. B., & Steward, W. T. American Psychologist, 55(1), 110-121.


The Neural Ecology of Consciousness and Healing. Winkelman, Michael. Wesport, CT: Bergin & Garvey


Positive psychology: An introduction Seligman, M. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5


The healing effect of laughter and positive emotions Andrew Steptoe of University College London, UK,.


Adaptive mental mechanisms: Their role in a positive psychology Valiant, G. E. American Psychologist, 55



Preoperative Clown Therapy for Pediatric Patients Smerling AJ, Scolnick E, Bagiella E & al, Anesthesia & Analgesia 88


Humor, Laughter and Play - Maintaining Balance in a Serious World Wooten, Patty Holistic Nursing Handbook. Dossey and Keegan, L (eds.). Baltimore, Aspen Publishing


Examining the Research on Humor: Being Cautious About Our Conclusions Sultanoff, S. The "President´s Column" in Therapeutic Humor, Publication of the American Association for Therapeutic Humor, Vol. XIII, 3



Humor and well-being in spouse caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease Buffum, M. & Brod, M.  Applied Nursing Research, 11(1) pp. 12-18.


Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life Seligman, M. New York: Pocket Books.


Humor and pain management Matz, A. Brown, S. Journal of Holistic Nursing. 16 (1) 68-75.


The Courage to Laugh Klein, Allen. Los Angeles, Tarcher,


Rx: laughter McGhee, P., RN, 61 (7), 50-53.


Clown and Trickster, an Encyclopedia of Tradition and Culture Christen Kimberly A., Denver Co, Santa Barbara CA and Oxford, England: ABC-CLIO


Humor and Wellness: Melding the Present and the Future Humor and Heart Disease Sultanoff S., "Therapeutic Humor, XII, 1-2, 1998.



Changes of immunoregulatory cells associated with psychological stress and humor Dr. Kamei, T., Kumano, H., & Masumura, S. Percept Mot Skills, 84 (3 Pt 2), 1296-1298.


Humor and laughter in palliative care Dean, R. A.  J Palliat Care, 13 (1), 34-39.


Clowning on Children's Wards Oppenheim, D, Simonds C, Hartmann, O. Lancet, 20-27;350(9094):1838-40.


You´ve Got to be Kidding! Humor Skills for Surviving Managed Care Wooten, Patty Dermatology Nursing 9,


Physician-patient communication; The relationship with malpractice claims among primary care physicians and surgeons Levinson, W., Roter, D., Mullooly, J., Dull, V., & Frankel, R. Journal of the American Medical Association 277(7)


Managing to Have Fun - Therapeutic Humour Skills and Development Weinstein, Matt. New York: Simon & Schuster


Humor Works Morreall, John. Amherst, MA: HRD Press, Inc.


The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down Fadiman A. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux



Points of correspondence between humor and psychotherapy Richman, J.  Psychotherapy, 33(4), 560-566.


Is humor only fun, an alternative cure or magic? The cognitive therapeutic potential of humor Gelkopf, M. & Kreitler, S. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 10(4), 235-254.


Humour: An antidote for Stress Wooten, P. Holistic Nursing Practice. 10 (2).pp. 49-56


Compassionate Laughter Wooten, Patty. Utah: Commune-A-Key.


Health, Healing and the Amuse System McGhee, Paul Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.


Hospice: humor, heartache and healing Showalter, S. E., & Skobel, S.  Am J Hosp Palliat Care, 13 (4), 8-9.


Now You are fit to Live: humour and health  Dossey, L. Alternative Therapies 2,p.8-13, 99


The Performance of Healing Laderman, Carol & Marina Roseman, eds.London: Rotledge



Survivor Humor and Disaster Nursing - Nursing Perspectives on Humor. Ritz, Sandy in Buxman, K. (ed), Staten Island,NY: Power Publications


The lifesaving function of humor with the depressed and suicidal elderly Dr. Richman, J.  Gerontologist, 35 


Play and Laughter, Moving towards harmony Dossey, B.M., Keegan, L., Guzzetta, C.E., Kolkmeier, L.G. in eds. Holistic Nursing: A Handbook for Practice, Kolkmeier L.G., Gaithersburg M.D., Aspen Publishers, , p. 31


Hostility, Anger, and Humor-Coping in Schizophrenic Patients Gelkopf, Marc, and Mircea Sigal. International Journal of Humor Research 8.3: 273-284.


The effects of humour on Secretory Immunoglobin A levels in school aged children Lambert, N.K., Lambert, R.B. Pediatric Nursing 21 p. 16-19


Clown Doctors: Shaman Healers of Western Medicine Van Blerkom, Miller Linda, Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series 9 (4), 462-475.


Nursing Perspectives on Humor Buxman, Karyn (ed.). Staten Island, NY: Power Publishers


Shining through: the humor and individuality of persons with Alzheimer´s disease Hall, G. R.,  Buckwalter, K. C., Gerdner, L. A., Stolley, J. M., Kudart, P., & Ridgeway, S. J, in Gerontology Nursing, 21 (3), 11-16.


Humor as a cognitive technique for increasing pain tolerance Weisenberg, M., Tepper, I., & Schwarzwald, J.


How to be Funnier, Happier, Healthier and More Successful Too! Bates, Roger, Minneapolis: Trafton Publish



Therapeutic uses of humor Sultanoff, S., The California Psychologist, Publication of the California Psychological Association, 25.


The Biology of Humor Dr. Fry, William, Int. Journal of Humor Research 7.2 111-126.


Humor and the Mental Health of the Elderly The Handbook of Humor: Clinical Applications to Psychotherapy Volcek, Mary Kay., Malabar, FL: Krieger, 111-122.


Humor: a nursing intervention for the elderly Hulse, J. R. Geriatr Nursing, 15 (2), 88-90.


The Use of Humor in the Treatment of People Kisner, Bette.  The Handbook of Humor: Clinical Applications to Psychotherapy. Malabar, FL: Krieger, 133-156.


Laughter Therapy Goodheart, Annette, Santa Barbara, CA: Stress Less Press


Humor at Work Blumenfeld, E., & Alpern, L., Atlanta: Peachtree Publishers


Clowns of the Hopi Wright, Barton. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland


Advances in Humor and Psychotherapy Fry, William & Waleed A. Salameh, Professional Resource Press


Effectiveness of the use of humor in the rehabilitation of people with SCI: a pilot study. Kennedy, P., & Marsh, N. J., Am Paraplegia Soc, 16 (4), 215-218.


Humor as a nursing intervention for cancer units Hunt, A. H. (1993). 16 (1), 34-39.


Humor as a Religious Experience Eberhart, Elvin (Cy). Eds. Fry, William F., Waleed A. Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press, 97-120


Managing Humor: When Is It Funny - And When Is It Not? White & Howse. in Nursing Management, 24 (4)


The Political Exploitation of the Clown Figure in Traditional and Popular Theater in Asia Epskamp, Kees P. International Journal of Humor Research 6.3, 271-284.



The physiologic effects of humor, mirth, and laughter Fry, W.F., Journal of the American Medical Association


Humor as therapy for patient and caregiver Wooten, Patty in Pulmonary Rehabilitation: Guidelines to Success. Philadelphia PA: J.B. Lippincott Co. 


Clowning as Critical Practice, Performance Humor in the South Pacific Mitchell, William E. ed., Pittsburgh and London: University of Pittsburgh Press, p. viii.


Humor in Counseling and Psychotherapy: A 20-Year Retrospective Shaughnessy, Michael F., and Terresa M. Wadsworth. Psychological Reports 70 (1992): 755-762.


Horrific Humor and Festal Farce: Carnival Clowning in Wape Society Mitchell, William E. " in William E. Mitchell, University of Pittsburgh Press, pp. 145-166.



Humor Appreciation and Mood in Stroke Patients Gillikan, L. S., and Peter Derks. " Cognitive Rehabilitation


Humor and the Health Professions Robinson, Vera, 2nd ed. Thorofare, NJ: C.B. Slack.


Laughter in hell: the use of humour during the Holocaust Lipman Steve, Northvale, N.J:J Aronson Inc.


A qualitative investigation of the use of humor by emergency personnel as a strategy for coping with stress Rosenberg, Lisa, Journal of Emergency Nursing, 17:4.


They Used to Call Me Snow White: Women´s strategic use of humor Barreca, Regina, NY: Viking-Penguin 



Humor and immune system functioning Lefcourt, H., Davidson-Katz, K., & Kueneman, K.,  International Journal of Humor Research, 3 (3), 305-321.


Does the use of humour as a coping strategy affect the stresses associated with emergency work? Moran, C., Int. Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 8,  361-377.


Treating those who fail to take themselves seriously: pathological aspects of humour Marcus, N.,  AJP 44(3)


Feeling Good: Humor in the facility Green, L. Journal of Long Term Care Administration, Fall, 5-8.


Contributions of humor as perceived by the terminally ill Herth, Kaye, Am Journal of Hospital Palliative Care


The Light Touch Kushner, Malcolm, NY: Simon & Schuster.


By Means of Performance Schechner, Richard and Villa Appel, Cambridge University Press



Humor: a therapeutic approach in oncology nursing Bellart, Judy, Cancer Nursing, 12:2.


Neuroendrocrine and stress hormone changes during mirthful laughter Berk, L.S., Tan, S.A., Fry, W.F., Napier, B.J., Lee, J.W. Hubbard, R.W. Lewis, J.E. & Eby, W.C., American Journal of the Med. Sciences. 298


Eustress of mirthful laughter modifies natural killer cell activity Berk, L. & Tan, S.  Clinical Research, 37, 115.


Humor techniques for oncology nurses Simon, J.M. Oncology Nursing Forum, v16, 667-0


Making Things Better by Making Them Worse Fay, Allen M.D., NY: Hawthorne Books


Healing Power of Humor Klein, Allen, Los Angeles CA: Tarcher


Head First: the Biology of Hope Cousins, Norman, NY: Dutton


Making Humor Work Paulson, Terry, Los Altos CA: Crisp Publishing


Mirthful Laughter and Blood Pressure Simon, Jolene M "Humor and Its Relationship to Perceived Health, Life Satisfaction, and Morale in Older Adults". Issues in & Mental Health Nursing, v11, 17-31.


Humor and the older adult: Implications for nursing Simon, Jolene M., Journal of Advanced Nursing, v14


Therapeutic Humor: Who´s fooling who? Simon, Jolene M. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Service,


Sense of humor, hassles, and immunoglubulin a: evidence for a stress-moderating effect of humor Martin, R.A. & Dobbin, J. P. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 18(2), 93-105.


Neurophysiology and the Curative Possession Trance A. Ruskin, Tara L., Medical Anthropology Quarterly, New Series Vol. 2, No. 3, Health and Industry pp. 286-302


A Laughing Place Hageseth, Christian. Fort Collins CO: Berwick Pub Co


Gallows Humor for a Scaffold Setting: Managing aggresive patients on a maximum security forensic unit Kuhlman, Thomas Hospital & Community Psychiatry, v39, 1085-90



Does sense of humor moderate the impact of life stress on psychological and physiological well-being? Porterfield, A.L., Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 306-317.


That´ll Be Five Cents, Please!´: Perceptions of Psychotherapy in Jokes and Humor Dunkelbau, Edward. Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy. Eds. William Fry and Waleed Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange


The ´Conspirative Method´: Applying Humoristic Inversion in Psychotherapy Titze, Michael. Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy. Eds. William Fry and Waleed Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Ex.


Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy: Advances in the Clincial Use of Humor Fry, William F., and Waleed A. Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange


Humor in Provocative Therapy Farrelly Frank, and Michael Lynch. Handbook of Humor and Psychotherapy. Eds. William Fry and Waleed Salameh. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, 81-106.


The therapeutic value of humor in aging adults Simon, Jolene M. J of Gerontological Nursing, 14:8, 9-13.



Leffcort, Herbert M. and Rod A. Martin. Humor and Life Stress: Antidote to Adversity. New York & Berlin: Springer Verlag


Dillon, K.M., Minchoff, B., & Baker, K.H. (1985-86). Positive emotional states and enhancement of the immune system. International Journal of Psychiatry, 15(1), 13-18.


Rosenheim, E. & Golan, G. (1986). Patients´ reactions to humorous interventions in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 40(1), 110-124.



William Guinee, ‘Confrontation and the Creation of Balance: Ritual Clowning Among the Zuni’. Folklore Forum, Vol. 18, No. 1–2 (1985), pp. 113–35.


Achterberg, Jeanne, Imagery in Healing: Shamanism and Modern Medicine, Boston: New Science Library


Schechter, Joel. Durov’s Pigs: Clowns. Politics and Theatre. New York: Theatre Communications Group.



Prerost, F. J. "Evaluating the Systematic Use of Humor in Stress Situations." Journal of Adolescents 7 267.


Black, Donald W. (1984) "Laughter". Journal of the American  Medical Association, 252:21, 2995-8.



Martin, R.A., &. Lefcourt, H.M. (1983). Sense of humor as a moderator of the relation between stressors and moods. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 520-525.


McGhee, Paul E.; & J.H Goldstein (eds). (1983) The Handbook of Humor Research (Volumes I & II). NY: Springer-Verlag.



"Liminal to Liminoid, in Play, Flow, Ritual" in From Ritual to Theatre, The Human Seriousness of Play, New York City: Performing Arts Journal Publications, 1982, pp. 20-60.


Turner, Victor, From Ritual to Theatre, The Human Seriousness of Play, Performing Arts Journal Publications



Cushing, Frank Hamilton. Zuni. Lincoln & London: University of Nebraska Press, 1979.



Moody, Raymond, Laugh After Laugh: The Healing Power of Humor, Jacksonville, FL: Headwaters Press.



Fry, William. The Respiratory Components of Mirthful Laughter. The Journal of Biological Psychology 19 39


Killinger, Barbara. "The Place of Humour in Adult Psychotherapy." It´s a Funny Thing, Humour. Eds. Antony Chapman and Hugh Foot. NY: Pergamon, 1977, 153-56.


Grossman, Saul A. "The Use of Jokes in Psychotherapy." It´s a Funny Thing, Humour. Eds. Antony Chapman and Hugh Foot. NY: Pergamon, 1977, 149-52. Haig, Robin Andrew. The Anatomy of Humor: Biopsychosocial and Therapeutic Perspectives. 


Turner, Victor. "Frame, Flow and Reflection: Ritual and Drama as Public Liminality" in Performance in Postmodern Culture, Michel Benamou & Charles Caramello, eds., Madison, Wisconsin: Coda Press, pp. 33



Cousins, Norman. (1976) "Anatomy of an Illness". New England Journal, Springfield, IL: Thomas


Anisimov, A.F. "The Shaman's Tent of the Evenks," in Schechner, Richard and Mady Schuman, eds. Ritual, Play and Performance, Seabury, 1976, pp. 125-138.


Towsen, John H., Clowns, New York, Hawthorn Books, 1976.


Schechner, Richard and Mady Schuman, Ritual, Play and Performance, Seabury, 1976.



Kirby, E.T., Ur Drama: The Origins of Theatre, New York University Press, 1975.



Farrelly, Frank and Jeff Brandsma. Provocative Therapy. Capitola, CA: Meta Publications, 1974.


Carmody, Denise L. Shamans, Prophets and Sages: an introduction to world religion. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub. Co.


Myerhoff, Barbara, Peyote Hunt, Cornell University Press


Myerhoff, Barbara. The Peyote Hunt: The Scared Journey of the Huichol Indians. Ithaca & London: Cornell University 


Castaneda, Carlos, Journey to Ixtilan: The Lessons of Don Juan, New York: Pocket Books,



Fry, William F. Laughter: Is It the Best Medicine? Stanford M.D. 10 16-20.


Fry, William F. Mirth and Oxygen Saturation of Peripheral Blood. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 19 76


Kubie, L. (1971). The potential of humor in psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 861-866.



Makarius, Laura. “Ritual Clowns and Symbolical Behavior”. Diogenes 1970 18: 44.



Berk, L.S., Tan, S.A. Nehlsen-Cannarella et al, Humour associated laughter decreases cortisol and increases spontaneous lymphocyte balstogenesis. Clinical Resident 36



Rappaport, Roy. Pigs for the Ancestors: Ritual in the Ecology of a New Giunea People. Yale University Press


Lommel, Andreas, Shamanism: The Beginnings of Art, New York: McGrow-Hill, 1967.



Cousins, Norman. Anatomy of an Illness as Perceived by the Patient, New York: W.W. Norton, 1964.


Kiev, Ari, Magic, Faith and Healing, The Free Press, 1964.



Michael, Henry, Studies in Siberian Shamanism, University of Toronto Press, 1963.



Belo, Jane. Trance in Bali. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.



Honigmann, John J. An Interpretation of the Social-Psychological Functions of the Ritual Clown. Character and Personality 10: 220-226  

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